Africa will dominate global population dynamics in the 21st century. While today only represents 17% of the world population, its demographic growth is slowing down less rapidly than that of other continents. It could, by the end of the century almost become Asia's equal, i.e. represent up to 40% of the world population. In this context, Africa might boost economic growth, reduce poverty or increase political influence benefiting from favorable demographics dividends but… under what conditions? What are the different scenarios forecasted? How important can demographics dividends be for their economies? What are the myths and realities of the African demographic challenges and opportunities?